By definition, an engineering survey pertains to all the work that a civil engineer does. According to the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), “Surveying is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points or details.”
Engineering surveying is mainly focused on the topography and layout and already-built systems of engineering design. This often requires geodetic computations that are beyond the practices of civil engineering.
Engineering surveying and services are subdivided into the following:
- Reconnaissance Survey is the large-scale examination of an entire area that may be used as an airfield or a road. This determines the rough cost of the project. This must include all routes and sections feasible for use. Data is collected by locating all possible routes, keeping in mind that there may be a need to expand in the future, with reports on the advantages and disadvantages of the routes and locations. Maps are then studied to point out approximate grades and distances. Overlays are added so they can be used as worksheets for alignment. The surveyor then studies these maps, marking boundaries and specified terminals, then takes note of ridges, existing routes, water sources, mountain gaps, and other features. Part of the surveyor’s duties is to classify all the routes that fit their requirements. Classification is lowered when disadvantages in the routes are inspected. Existing terrain conditions must be taken advantage of to minimize excavations for the reconnaissance.
- Preliminary Survey is the detailed study of the routes reported and recommended by the reconnaissance survey team. The surveyors come up with a more precise report which includes control and reference points, and may also include obtaining traverse, leveling, and topographic data. The traverse team is responsible for establishing the control and reference points, measuring distances, and setting up intersections. The level team is responsible for providing benchmarks and determines the elevation of selected points along the route as a control for future surveys like preparing topographical maps and profiles. Part of their duties is taking rod readings and recording elevations. The topographic team gathers data for relief and planimetric detail in recommended areas for the survey. The data they gather determines the final location.
- Location surveying is used for laying out the groundwork. This requires higher accuracy than reconnaissance surveying because it is the preparation for the structural construction. This also takes into consideration all the data prepared by the reconnaissance and preliminary surveyors. The surveyor has to ensure that the execution of the project goes smoothly.
To ensure that a project does not encounter hazards and safety measures are met, a team of professionals must be employed for engineering surveys. High attention to detail and accuracy are a must for the project to be carried into completion.
CS Solutions offers a comprehensive range of engineering surveys and services both for the private and public sectors. With over 10 years of experience, the company has provided excellent service and top-rate surveys in all aspects. If you are looking for a company that will help you in your engineering survey needs, consider CS Solutions for quality service.